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Traveler’s Diarrhea

Definition

Traveler's diarrhea is diarrhea in people who travel to international destinations. It often happens in less developed countries.

Causes

The primary cause of traveler’s diarrhea is ingesting contaminated food or water. The substance carries bacteria, a virus, or a parasite that causes the diarrhea. Examples of agents that can cause the diarrhea include:
Virus Attacking Cell
Virus
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The pathogen that causes the infection will partly depend on the area of travel.

Risk Factors

The most important risk factor for getting traveler’s diarrhea is the destination. Underdeveloped countries with unsafe water supplies pose the highest risk. The following factors increase your chance of getting traveler’s diarrhea. If you have any of these risk factors and plan to travel internationally, tell your doctor:
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Crohn's Disease
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Symptoms

Symptoms can include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
A stool sample may be taken. This will allow your doctor to identify the pathogen.

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Your doctor may direct you to self-treat if you are travelling to certain countries and have sudden moderate to severe diarrhea. People who get traveler's diarrhea usually get better within 3-5 days even without treatment. Treatment options include the following:

Hydration

It is important for people who have diarrhea to make sure they are drinking plenty of clear fluids. This will replace the fluids lost in the diarrhea. Some people may need to use an oral rehydration solution such as children and older adults who are more likely to become dehydrated.

Antibiotics

Antibiotics may reduce how long symptoms last by 1-2 days. These antibiotics are only helpful for treating infections caused by bacteria.

Antimotility Agents

Antimotility agents may help relieve symptoms of diarrhea. Examples of these medications include:
  • Loperamide—Should not be used in children less than 2 years old, people with fever over 101.3 degrees Fahrenheit (38.5 degrees Celsius), and people with bloody diarrhea.
  • Bismuth subsalicylate—Should not be used in children, pregnant women, and people with allergies to aspirin or salicylates.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of traveler’s diarrhea:

RESOURCES

American Gastroenterological Association http://www.gastro.org

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education http://www.canfightbac.org

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References

Acute diarrhea in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 24, 2014. Accessed December 18, 2014.

Acute diarrhea in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 15, 2014. Accessed December 18, 2014.

Juckett G. Prevention and treatment of traveler’s diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. 1999;60(1):119-136.

Travelers' diarrhea. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/travelers-diarrhea. Updated November 21, 2006. Accessed December 18, 2014.

Traveler's diarrhea. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 28, 2014. Accessed December 18, 2014.

Yates J. Traveler’s diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(11):2095-2100.

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