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Encephalopathy

(Glycine Encephalopathy; Hepatic Encephalopathy; Hypoxic Encephalopathy; Statin Encephalopathy; Uremic Encephalopathy; Wernicke’s Encephalopathy; Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy; Hypertensive Encephalopathy; Toxic-metabolic Encephalopathy)

Definition

Encephalopathy is condition caused by diseases that affect large portions of the brain. The disease may affect the function and/or the structure of the brain leading to a wide range of physical and mental symptoms. An altered mental state, such as confusion and sudden mood changes, is often a hallmark of encephalopathy.
There are several causes of encephalopathy. Treating the underlying disease or injury causing the encephalopathy may reverse symptoms in some. Some causes of encephalopathy may result in lasting changes in the brain. If the brain injury is severe and cannot be reversed, it can be fatal.

Causes

Encephalopathy is caused by widespread dysfunction of the brain. Some common causes include:
Oxygen and Blood Flow to the Brain
oxygen brain lungs
If the flow of oxygen to the brain is disrupted, it can cause encephalopathy.
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Risk Factors

Risk factors vary depending on type of encephalopathy. For example, alcohol use disorder puts you at risk for Wernicke’s encephalopathy or hepatic encephalopathy.

Symptoms

An altered mental state may include:
Other symptoms may include:
Signs that encephalopathy may be getting worse include:
Medical care is needed right away for these symptoms.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask you or your caregiver about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
To confirm diagnosis and determine the cause or extent of the encephalopathy, your doctor may request:

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to try to stop or reverse the damage by managing the condition causing the encephalopathy. Treatment is based on the cause, but may include:
Medical support may be needed through recovery including feeding tube or breathing support with severe encephalopathy.

Prevention

Many causes cannot be prevented. To help reduce the chance of encephalopathy:

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders http://www.niddk.nih.gov

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Liver Foundation http://www.liver.ca

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References

Cirrhosis complications: Encephalopathy. California Pacific Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.sutterhealth.org/health/healthinfo/?section=healthinfo&page=article&sgml%5Fid=aa81211. Updated November 14, 2014. Accessed February 12, 2016.

NINDS encephalopathy page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalopathy/encephalopathy.htm. Updated November 9, 2010. Accessed February 12, 2016.

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