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Spasmodic Dysphonia

(SD; Adductor Laryngeal Breathing Dystonia (ABLD); Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia; Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia; Dysphonia, Episodic Laryngeal Dyskinesia; Laryngeal Dystonia; Spastic Dysphonia)

Definition

Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a voice disorder. The muscles of the throat freeze or go into spasms. Words are strangled and strained or they don’t get out at all. Sounds are also distorted.
The main types of SD include:
Throat
Throat
Spasmodic dysphonia affects the throat muscles.
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Causes

Often, the exact cause of SD is unknown. It is a disorder of the central nervous system. The areas of the brain that control these muscle movements are deep within the brain.

Risk Factors

This condition is more common in women and people who are between 30 and 50 years of age.
Factors that may increase your chance of developing SD include:

Symptoms

Symptoms of SD include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Imaging tests evaluate the throat or other structures. These may include:
You may be referred to a team of specialists, including:

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:

Prevention

There are no current guidelines to prevent SD because the cause is not known.

RESOURCES

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association http://www.asha.org

National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association http://www.dysphonia.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Ontario Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists http://www.osla.on.ca

Speech-Language and Audiology Canada http://sac-oac.ca

References

Daniilidou, P, Carding P, Wilson, J, Drinnan, M, Deary, V. Cognitive behavioral therapy for functional dysphonia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116(10):717-722.

Diagnosis. National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association website. Available at: http://www.dysphonia.org/diagnosis.php. Accessed November 26, 2014.

Rosow DE, Parikh P, Vivero RJ, Casiano RR, Lundy DS. Considerations for initial dosing of botulinum toxin in treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;148(6):1003-1006.

Spasmodic dysphonia. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/SpasmodicDysphonia.htm. Accessed November 26, 2014.

Spasmodic dysphonia. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders website. Available at: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/Pages/spasdysp.aspx. Updated October 2010. Accessed November 26, 2014.

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