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Epididymitis

(Epididymo-orchitis)

Definition

Acute epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis. This is a structure that surrounds and attaches to each testicle. It is shaped like a tube. The epididymis helps transport and store sperm cells.
Chronic epididymitis causes discomfort or pain in the epididymis. It can last for 3 months or longer. This type is less common.
The Epididymis
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Causes

This condition is most often caused by a bacterial infection. For example:
Other causes include:

Risk Factors

Only men can develop this condition. It affects men age 15-30 with sexually transmitted bacteria begin a common cause. It also affects men over 60 with urinary tract infections being a common cause.
Other factors that increase the risk of epididymitis include:
Children and newborns can get epididymitis.

Symptoms

Symptoms usually develop within 1 day. These include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your scrotum. This can be done with ultrasound.

Treatment

Treatment is essential to prevent the infection from worsening. Treatment may include:

Prevention

The following steps can help decrease your risk:

RESOURCES

National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org

Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guide: 2006. MMWR. 2006;55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2006/rr5511.pdf. Accessed August 31, 2015.

Hori S, Sengupta A, et al. Long-term outcome of epididymectomy for the management of chronic epididymal pain. J Urol. 2009 Oct;182(4):1407-1412.

Santillanes G, Gausche-Hill M, et al. Are antibiotics necessary for pediatric epididymitis? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Feb 19.

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