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Berylliosis

(Beryllium Disease)

Definition

Berylliosis is a lung disease that affects people exposed to beryllium. Beryllium is a metallic element that is found in rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust and used in certain industries.
The 2 types of berylliosis are:

Causes

Berylliosis is caused by inhalation of beryllium dust or fumes or other exposure such as through an open skin wound.
Berylliosis usually only occurs in people who have an allergic sensitivity to beryllium.

Risk Factors

The primary risk factor for berylliosis is working in an area where beryllium is processed. Industries that use beryllium include:
People who live near such industries have a slightly higher risk of getting berylliosis than those who do not, but the risk is extremely low.

Symptoms

Symptoms of acute berylliosis come on suddenly and rapidly. The main symptoms are due to severe lung inflammation. These symptoms include:
Inflammation in Lungs
Inflammed Lung and asthma
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Symptoms of chronic berylliosis may include:
Symptoms of chronic berylliosis develop slowly. Sometimes, symptoms may not appear until many years after exposure to beryllium. Chronic berylliosis produces two main changes:
In severe cases, berylliosis may lead to heart failure.

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Three factors need to be present to diagnose berylliosis:
Symptoms of chronic berylliosis may not appear until years after exposure. Therefore, all workers who may have been exposed to beryllium should have BeLPT tests, even if they have no symptoms.
Other tests that may be done to look for the effects on the lungs:

Treatment

The most important step in the management of berylliosis is to avoid further exposure to beryllium.
For acute berylliosis, you may be given corticosteroid medication. This drug helps to reduce lung inflammation. When treated rapidly, most recover fully. But in extreme cases, if not treated rapidly, acute berylliosis can be fatal.
For chronic berylliosis, corticosteroids may be used if you develop symptoms of lung disease. However, these medications do not reverse scarring that has already occurred in the lungs.

Prevention

Avoiding or limiting exposure to beryllium is the best way to prevent berylliosis. The following steps will help decrease exposure:
If you are exposed to beryllium, consult with your doctor about the best way to proceed. You may need to have a BeLPT blood test as well as PFTs to detect any change in lung function.

RESOURCES

American Lung Association http://www.lung.org

Occupational Safety & Health Administration https://www.osha.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

The Lung Association http://www.lung.ca

References

Berylliosis. National Organization for Rare Disorders website. Available at: http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/berylliosis. Accessed September 3, 2014.

Beryllium. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety website. Available at: http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/diseases/beryllium.html. Updated January 16, 2014. Accessed September 3, 2014.

Beryllium. US Department of Labor (OSHA) website. Available at: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/beryllium/index.html. Accessed September 3, 2013.

Chronic beryllium disease. National Jewish Health website. Available at: http://www.nationaljewish.org/healthinfo/conditions/beryllium-disease. Updated May 2011. Accessed September 3, 2014.

Chronic beryllium disease. UCSF Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.ucsfhealth.org/conditions/chronic%5Fberyllium%5Fdisease/index.html. Accessed September 3, 2014.

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