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Scarlet Fever

(Scarlatina)

Definition

Scarlet fever is an infection which produces a sore throat , fever, and a specific rash.
Sore Throat Due to Inflammation
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Causes

Scarlet fever is caused by specific bacteria. The bacteria produces a toxin that causes a rash. Scarlet fever usually develops in conjunction with strep throat .

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of scarlet fever include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:
In rare cases, untreated strep throat infection may cause:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may diagnose scarlet fever by the specific rash. Confirmation of scarlet fever can be done with a throat swab or rapid strep antigen detection test.

Treatment

The infection that causes scarlet fever can be treated with antibiotics. It is important to take all the prescribed medication. Doing so will prevent scarlet fever from returning, and also prevent complications.
There is no specific treatment for the rash. After the rash fades, the skin peels for several weeks.

Prevention

To reduce your chances of getting scarlet fever, take these steps:

RESOURCES

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org

Nemours Kids Health http://www.kidshealth.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca

References

McKinnon HD Jr, Howard T. Evaluating the febrile patient with a rash. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62(4):804-816.

Scarlet fever. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 10, 2012. Accessed January 16, 2015.

Streptococcal infections. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious%5Fdiseases/gram-positive%5Fcocci/streptococcal%5Finfections.html. Updated April 2013. Accessed January 16, 2015.

Streptococcus. PEMSoft at EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Accessed January 16, 2015.

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