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Corneal Abrasion

(Scratched Cornea)

Definition

A corneal abrasion is a scratch on the cornea. The cornea is the clear, front surface of the eye. It is located directly in front of the colored part of the eye.
The cornea has several layers that help protect the eye.
The Cornea
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Causes

Most corneal abrasions happen as a result of:

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase the risk of corneal abrasion include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms and medical history. An eye exam will be done. The doctor will look for any foreign objects in the eye. Drops may also be placed in the eye for comfort. They can also make the scratch more visible under a special light.

Treatment

Minor scratches usually heal within 1-2 days. Some severe corneal abrasions may form a scar and permanently impair vision. An eye specialist may be needed for treatment of large or deep scratches.
Treatment may include:

Removing a Foreign Object

The foreign object may be removed. This may be done by flushing the eye with saline or by using a cotton swab, needle, or other tool.

Medication

Medications may include:
  • Antibiotic ointment or eye drops to prevent infection
  • Pain medications to reduce discomfort

Self-care

Eye problems should always prompt a visit to an eye doctor right. Other self-care steps:
  • Do not rub your eye. Rubbing may worsen the abrasion.
  • Use moist compresses to help relieve the pain.
  • Do not wear contact lenses until the doctor says it is okay to do so.
In some cases, a contact lens will be placed in the eye to help relieve the discomfort and improve healing.
The doctor will likely monitor the eye on a regular basis to make sure the scratch is healing.
In some cases, a contact lens will be placed in the eye to help relieve the discomfort and improve healing.
The doctor will likely monitor the eye on a regular basis to make sure the scratch is healing.

Prevention

Prevention aims to avoid injury to the cornea. To avoid injuring the cornea:
If something gets in the eye:
If an object strikes the eye at a fast pace, it can be a medical emergency. Seek medical attention right away.
If a chemical splashes into the eyes, flush them right away and call for emergency medical services.
If there is no eye pain or a foreign object, consider seeing an eye specialist immediately rather than going to the emergency room. However, for a severe injury or chemical splash, call for emergency medical services.

RESOURCES

American Academy of Ophthalmology http://www.aao.org

American Optometric Association http://www.aoanet.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Association of Optometrists http://www.opto.ca

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References

Corneal abrasion. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 14, 2014. Accessed January 13, 2015.

Corneal abrasions. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/first-aid/corneal-abrasions.html. Updated December 2010. Accessed January 13, 2015.

DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.epnet.com/dynamed: Turner A, Rabiu M. Patching for corneal abrasion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD004764.

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