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Acute Cystitis

(Bladder Infection)

Definition

Acute cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. It is usually caused by an infection. There are 2 types are of acute cystitis:
The Urinary Tract
The Urinary Tract
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Causes

Acute cystitis is most often caused by bacteria. Bacteria enter the urethra and travel into the bladder. The urethra is a tube that allows urine to pass from the bladder to the outside. Bacteria may come from the lower intestines, the rectal area, or skin. Occasionally, acute cystitis can be the result of medications or trauma.

Risk Factors

Acute cystitis is more common in women. Other factors that may increase your risk of uncomplicated cystitis include:
Factors that increase your risk of complicated cystitis include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Urine will be tested and cultured for the presence of bacteria.
If complicated cystitis is suspected, additional tests may be necessary. These may include imaging studies to examine the bladder.

Treatment

Acute cystitis is treated with antibiotics. It is important to take all antibiotics as advised. Finish all your antibiotics even if you are feeling better.
Your doctor may also prescribe medication to reduce pain and bladder spasms.

Prevention

Here are some steps you can take to keep bacteria out of your urinary tract:

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov

Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca

References

Complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 29, 2015. Accessed March 3, 2016.

Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(77):771-776.

Cranberry. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/biomedical-libraries/natural-alternative-treatments. Updated December 2015. Accessed March 3, 2016.

Katchman EA, Milo G, et al. Three-day vs longer duration of antibiotic treatment for cystitis in women: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2005;118(11):1196-1207.

Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in men. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 15, 2016. Accessed March 3, 2016.

What I need to know about urinary tract infections. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/uti%5Fez. Updated September 2013. Accessed March 3, 2016.

5/6/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: Results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(1):23-30.

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