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Heart Attack

(Acute Myocardial Infarction [AMI]; Myocardial Infarction [MI]; ST-Segment-Elevation MI [STEMI]; Transmural Myocardial infarction)

Definition

A heart attack occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is interrupted. Oxygen cannot get to the heart muscle, causing tissue damage or tissue death.
Heart Attack
Heart Attack
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Causes

A heart attack may be caused by:

Risk Factors

The risk of heart attack is greater in males and older adults.
Factors that may increase your chance of developing a heart attack include:

Symptoms

Symptoms include:
Unusual symptoms of heart attack—may occur more frequently in women:
If you think you are having a heart attack, call for emergency medical services right away.

Diagnosis

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Your heart function may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken. This can be done with:

Treatment

Treatment includes:
Within the first six hours after a heart attack, you may be given medications to break up blood clots in the coronary arteries.

Surgery

If you have severe blockages you may need surgery right away or after recovery, such as:

Physical or Rehabilitative Therapy

During recovery, you may need physical or rehabilitative therapy to help you regain your strength.

Treatment for Depression

You may feel depressed after having a heart attack. Therapy and medication can help relieve depression.

Prevention

Preventing or treating coronary artery disease may help prevent a heart attack.

RESOURCES

American Heart Association http://www.heart.org

Heart and Stroke Foundation http://www.heartandstroke.com

CANADIAN RESOURCES

College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca

Heart and Stroke Foundation http://www.heartandstroke.com

References

About heart attacks. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/AboutHeartAttacks/About-Heart-Attacks%5FUCM%5F002038%5FArticle.jsp. Updated September 2, 2014. Accessed September 29, 2014.

ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 27, 2014. Accessed September 29, 2014.

What is a heart attack? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack/. Updated December 13, 2013. Accessed September 29, 2014.

7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Antithrombotic Trialists' (ATT) Collaboration, Baigent C, Blackwell L, et al. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2009;373:1849-1860.

2/3/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Finkle W, Greenland S, et al. Increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction following testosterone therapy prescription in men. PLoS One. 2014;9(1).

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