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Rotator Cuff Injury

(Rotator Cuff Tear; Impingement Syndrome)

Definition

Rotator cuff injury may include tendinitis, strain, or tear of the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is made up of muscles and 4 separate tendons that fuse together to surround the shoulder joint.
Rotator Cuff Injury
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Causes

Causes of a rotator cuff injury include:

Risk Factors

Rotator cuff injury is more common in people 40 years and older. Other factors that increase your chance of a rotator cuff injury include:

Symptoms

Rotator cuff injury may cause:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done, paying particular attention to your shoulder. You will be asked to move your shoulder in several directions.
Tests may include:

Treatment

The treatment will depend on the extent of your injury, level of pain, and amount of immobility. The first step is usually a nonsurgical approach.

Nonsurgical

Nonsurgical approaches may include:
  • Rest to help the shoulder heal; an arm sling may be advised to help rest the shoulder area
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to control the pain and/or inflammation
  • Topical pain relievers, such as creams or patches, that are applied to the skin
  • Corticosteroid injections to help reduce pain and inflammation
  • Injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP) to promote healing
  • Ice to help relieve pain and inflammation
  • Physical therapy to help strengthen and increase motion in the shoulder area

Surgical

Acromioplasty
Acromioplasty is surgery on the bony structures that impinge the rotator cuff. Surgery can be arthroscopic or open.
Arthroscopy
A small instrument is inserted into the shoulder and used to remove bone spurs or degenerated portions of the rotator cuff tendons. Lesser tears can be repaired during arthroscopy as well.
Mini-Open Repair with Arthroscopy
This combines arthroscopy with an incision in the shoulder joint. Through the incision, larger tears in the tendons or muscles can be sutured.
Open Surgery
This is used to repair the injured tendon or muscle in more severe cases. A tissue transfer or a tendon graft can be done during surgery if the tear is too large to be closed together. In the most severe cases, a joint replacement may be necessary.

Recovery

Depending on the extent of your injury, full recovery can take anywhere from 2 to 6 months or longer.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance a rotator cuff injury:

RESOURCES

The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine http://www.sportsmed.org

Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://www.orthoinfo.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org

The University of British Columbia Department of Orthopaedics http://orthopaedics.med.ubc.ca

References

Castricini R, et al. Platelet-rich plasma augmentation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):258-65.

Deu RS. Common Sports Injuries: Upper Extremity Injuries. Clin Fam Pract. 2005 Jun; 7(2); 249-265.

Rotator cuff tear. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 13, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2015.

Smith MA, Smith WT. Rotator cuff tears: an overview. Orthop Nurs. 2010;29(5):319-322

10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.

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