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Seasonal Affective Disorder

(SAD)

Definition

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression. It is associated with the seasonal changes in light. SAD most commonly occurs in late fall and lasts through the winter and into spring. SAD is more than feeling down, it interferes with normal daily functions during these times.
Brain—Psychological Organ
Brain face skull
SAD may be caused by fluctuations in hormones and brain chemicals.
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Causes

The causes of SAD are not completely clear. Some factors that may play a role include:

Risk Factors

SAD is more common in women than in men, often appearing in young adulthood. People who live in northern latitudes also have an increased risk of developing SAD. People with a history of depression or bipolar disorder may experience a seasonal worsening in their depression.

Symptoms

Symptoms appear and peak during the winter months. As spring and summer approach, symptoms disappear. SAD may cause:

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical and psychological exam will be done.
A diagnosis of SAD will only be made if you have some of the symptoms above and:

Treatment

Light Therapy

Light therapy provides a special type of lighting to your body. Therapy includes sitting a few feet away from an ultra-bright light for a certain amount of time each day, usually in the morning. You will be able to read or work during the therapy, as your eyes will remain open. Treatment usually lasts about 30 minutes each day.
There is some evidence that light therapy may be as effective as antidepressant therapy, but with fewer side effects.
Tanning beds are not recommended as a source of light therapy. They give off ultraviolet light, which can increase the risk of cancer. They also have not been proven effective for treating SAD.
Many people find that getting outdoors for a walk each day is also helpful.

Antidepressant Medications

Your doctor may prescribe antidepressant medications or supplements.

Psychotherapy

Therapists can help you learn ways of managing stress and the symptoms of SAD.
Cognitive behavioral therapy may be used to change your patterns of thinking. This will allow you to notice how you react to symptoms. You will then learn how to change your thinking so that you can react differently. This can decrease the symptoms of SAD.

Prevention

If you have SAD each year, your doctor may make suggestions to help prevent symptoms. For example, an extended release version of bupropion or light therapy may be used to prevent SAD symptoms from coming if started before depressive symptoms start.

RESOURCES

Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) http://www.dbsalliance.org

Mental Health America http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.cmha.ca

Canadian Psychological Association http://www.cpa.ca

References

Johansson C, Smedh C, Partonen T, et al. Seasonal affective disorder and serotonin-related polymorphisms. Neurobiol Dis. 2001;8(2):351–357.

Mead MN. Benefits of sunlight: a bright spot for human health. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(4):A160-A167.

Seasonal affective disorder. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/seasonal-affective-disorder.html. Updated September 2012. Accessed October 12, 2015.

Seasonal affective disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 19, 2012. Accessed October 12, 2015.

7/20/06 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.epnet.com/dynamed: Lam RW, Levitt AJ, Levitan RD, et al. The Can-SAD study: a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of light therapy and fluoxetine in patients with winter seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(5):805-812.

2/16/2016 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Rohan KJ, Mahon JN, et al. Randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus light therapy for seasonal affective disorder: acute outcomes. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 1;172(9):862-869.

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