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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

(Crib Death; SIDS)

Definition

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) refers to the unexpected, unexplained death of a child less than one year old. SIDS is rare during the first month of life. It peaks at 2-4 months of age, then gradually decreases.

Causes

Experts do not know the exact cause of SIDS. Many theories exist. Potential causes include:
Brainstem
brainstem
Area of the brain involved in regulation of breathing.
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Risk Factors

SIDS is more common in infants less than 6 months old. Other factors that increase your infant's chance of SIDS include:

Symptoms

A baby that dies of SIDS typically appears healthy. The baby may have had a cold or gastrointestinal infection in the 2 weeks prior to death. There usually are no warning signs that a baby is about to have SIDS.

Diagnosis

All possible illnesses and causes of death must be ruled out before a diagnosis of SIDS is made. A complete investigation will take place including:

Treatment

Emergency medical personnel should be called as soon as the infant is discovered not breathing. Infant CPR should be started right away. Seek medical care right away even if the baby starts breathing again. The cause of the incident should be fully evaluated. Families may need grief counseling after the death. Some parents find support groups helpful.

Prevention

There is no way to predict which infants will die of SIDS. Several actions may help you lower your child's chance of SIDS:

RESOURCES

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org

Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca

References

American Academy of Pediatrics SIDS Task Force. The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1245-1255.

Galland BC, et al. Prone versus supine sleep position: a review of the physiological studies in SIDS research. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002;38:332-338.

Hay WW. Current Consult Pediatrics. 17th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

Hunt CE, Hauck FR. Sudden infant death syndrome. CMAJ. 2006;174:1861-1869.

Kleigman RM, Jensen HB, et al, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 11, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2013.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Nemours Kid's Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/sleep/sids.html. Updated October 2011. Accessed February 18, 2013.

10/23/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Blair P, Sidebotham P, et al. Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ. 2009;339:b3666.

11/14/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics. 2011;128(5):1030-1039.

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