Thyroid Cancer

(Cancer, Thyroid)


Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid tumor
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There are several types of thyroid cancer, including:


Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Eventually these uncontrolled cells form a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths can invade nearby tissues including the lymph nodes. Cancer that has invaded the lymph nodes can then spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but is probably a combination of genetics and environment.

Risk Factors

Thyroid cancer is more common in women, and in people aged 30 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of thyroid cancer include:


Thyroid cancer may cause:


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. This may include a careful examination of your neck to look for lumps or abnormalities.
Tests may include:
The physical exam, combined with all of your test results, will help to determine the type and stage of cancer you have. Staging is used to guide your treatment plan. Like other cancers, thyroid cancer is staged from I-IV. Stage I is a very localized cancer, while stage IV indicates a spread to other parts of the body


Cancer treatment varies depending on the stage and type of cancer. Options may include:


Because the exact cause of thyroid cancer is unknown, early detection and treatment lead to better outcomes. Your doctor may recommend screening tests for you. For example:
Since exposure to radiation is a major risk factor for thyroid cancer, you should:


American Cancer Society

Thyroid Cancer Survivors' Association


Canadian Cancer Society

Thyroid Foundation of Canada


General information about thyroid cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: Updated June 10, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.

Papillary thyroid cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated August 18, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.

Thyroid cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: Accessed September 30, 2014.

4/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Wolinski K, Czarnywojtek A, Ruchala M. Risk of thyroid nodular disease and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegay—meta-analysis and systemic review. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e88787.

7/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Liang Y, Yang Z, Qin B, Zhong R. Primary Sjogren's syndrome and malignancy risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73(6):1151-1156.

10/1/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, et al. Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults. Lancet. 2014;384(9945):755-765.

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