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Typhoid Fever

(Enteric Fever; Paratyphoid Fever)

Definition

Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are serious infectious illnesses. They occur most often in developing countries where sanitation is poor.

Causes

Typhoid fever is caused by eating foods or drinking beverages contaminated with specific bacteria. Contamination can be present in:
Digestive System
Small intestines
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Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of typhoid fever include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Typhoid fever is usually diagnosed with a blood culture.

Treatment

Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.
Typhoid fever spreads easily until it is treated. In a small number of cases, people may become typhoid carriers even after the illness has passed. People who are chronic carriers can shed the contagious bacteria in their stool or urine. This condition can be treated with antibiotics or, in unusual cases, surgery to remove the gall bladder.
Your doctor may also recommend medication to help reduce the fever. In general, rest and drink plenty of fluids.

Prevention

There are two main ways to prevent typhoid fever:

RESOURCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov

World Health Organization http://www.who.int

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

References

Bhan MK, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Lancet. 2005;366(9487):749-762.

Bui YG, Trépanier S, Milord F, et al. Cases of malaria, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever Among VFRs, Quebec (Canada). J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):373-378.

Johnson KJ, Gallagher NM, Mintz ED, et al. From the CDC: New country-specific recommendations for pre-travel typhoid vaccination. J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):430-433.

Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid%5Ffever. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed June 19, 2014.

Travel medicine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 14, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2014.

Typhoid VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/typhoid.html. Updated May 29, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2014.

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